Choon Yong-Cycles of life, Exploring Biology

Author of Book: Coastal College
Date Read: September 17, 2023

Book Report

ACE Class Book Report Cycles of Life, Exploring Biology.
Begin: 7/2/2023
Finished: 9/17/2023
Title: Cycles of life, exploring Biology
Author: Coastal College

Why I chose to take this class:
Biology is a subject t that I took in high school 50 years ago. It gives me the opportunity to learn something that I know very little. It is a new learning experience as well as how to train others in new subjects that I am not familiar with. It is pushing my comfort zone.

What I learned from this class:
The unity and diversity of Life: Cell is the basic unit of all life of all living things. Human has more than 65 trillion cells in our body. Cells in plants and animals are specialist with a particular job to do. Nerve cells, muscle cells and other specialized cell groups together form tissue, such as nerve tissue or muscle tissue. Different kinds of tissue form organs such as the brain, eyes, heart and others. Al the specialized cell together to form us or other complete organism. Every cell reproduce by dividing. When s cell divided, each of the two cells get a copy of the genetic instructions in a chemical substance called DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid). The genetic instruction carried in DNA make every living things different from all others. There are two types of cell divisions: 1) Mitosis and 2) Meiosis. Mitosis is the cell division for single cell organism and most multicell organism. Meiosis – human and other living things reproduce sexually. Every species has a certain number of chromosomes in each of its somatic (body) cells. Human being has 23 pairs or 46 chromosomes. Cell divide after a large mass of cells has formed, the dividing cells begin to differentiate (Specialize) and become muscle cells, skin cells and so on. The different cell group into tissues and form organs such as your heart or lungs. A cell is active to carry out life’s functions, including growth and reproduction. To live it must obtain energy. It must manufacture protein and other substance needed for construction and speed up chemical reactions. Most of the body’s energy comes form the mitochondria, the power producers of the cell. It burns Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP). The source of energy for most living thigs is the sun. Plant cells produces ATP during photosynthesis. Animal cells obtain their energy from food that animal eats. The digestive system breaks down the food to: Fatty Acids, Sugar and starch into simple sugars, and proteins into Amino acids. Oxygen is present in the Mitochondria for reactions to take place which produce Carbon Dioxide, water and many molecules of ATP. For every job that needs energy, special enzymes break the ATP Phosphate bond and release energy. All living things are built largely of proteins, the proteins called enzymes speeds up the chemical reactions of life. They help digest your food, produce energy and build other proteins. Many hormones are proteins. The body also makes protein called antibodies to fight disease and germs. When a protein is to be made, an Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) copy of the DNA blueprint for the protein is made in the nucleus. This RNA lines up Amino Acids in the proper order. Another type of RNA, Transfer RNA collects Amino Acids in the Cytoplasm. The Ribosome moves along the messenger RNA. The transfer RNA, carrying Amino Acids, line up with the messenger RNA in the Ribosome. The Amino Acid link together and the transfer RNA is released. As the Ribosome moves down the messenger RNA, a polypeptide chain is formed. The finals segment of the messenger signals that the chain is complete. DNA controls the life of the cells in two ways: 1) DNA determines the form and functions of the cell by regulating the type of protein the cell produce. 2) It passes on all the heredity information from one generation of cells to the next. DNA is the master plan of all life.
The power of metabolism:
Metabolism is the sum of the chemical process by which cells produce the material and energy necessary for life. Metabolism has two phases: 1) Anabolism or constructive metabolism, during which cells combine molecules to assemble new organic materials and 2) Catabolism or destructive metabolism, cells break down molecules to obtain energy and release heat. Hormones control both the rate and direction of metabolism. Thyroxine secreted by the Thyroid gland play a key role in determining the rate of metabolism. Hormones secreted by cells in the Pancreas determine whether the body metabolic activity will be Anabolic or Catabolic. Metabolic reactions involve molecules of Glucose, Fatty Acids and Amino Acids. During digestion, enzymes spit dietary protein into Amino Acids, Dietary fats into Fatty Acids and Glycerol and Dietary Carbohydrates into simple sugars, particular Glucose. These compound are then absorbed and transported by the blood to the cells. Anabolism combine Amino Acids to form Structural and Functional proteins. The body repairs and replace tissue with structural protein. Functional protein includes enzymes to speed up chemical reactions; antibodies to fight diseases and hormones to regulate bodily processes. Catabolism breaks down Glucose, Fatty Acids,and Amino Acids to obtain energy and heat.

How will this class contribute to my success upon my release:
This class has trained me to teach and train new material that are new to me. My abilities to master that should facilitate my teaching and mentoring others.