Choon Yong-ACE Class Report:Nutrition Made Clear

Author of Book: Instructor: Professor Roberta A. Anding
Date Read:

Book Report

ACE Class Report – Nutrition Made Clear.
Begin: 12/ 26/2023
Finish: 3/12/2024
Title: Nutrition Made Clear
Instructor: Professor Roberta A. Anding
Baylor College of Medicine

Why I choose to take this class:

Information on nutrition is important to maintain a healthy lifestyle and be healthy.

What I learned from this class:

Nutrition deals with food and how the body uses it. Food supplies the energy for living, provides substance that the body needs to build and repair its tissue and to regulate its organs and systems. Food provide nutrients and performs the following functions: 1) Material for building, repairing or maintaining body tissue, 2) Help regulate body processes and 3) Fuel to provide energy. The body needs energy to maintain all its functions.

Kinds of Nutrients: 1) Water, 2) Carbohydrates, 3) Fats, 4) Proteins, 5) Minerals and 6) Vitamins. The first four groups are called Macronutrients, the body needs large amounts. The last two groups are Micronutrients, we need small amount.

Water: Most critical nutrient. the body needs water to carry out all its life process. Water dissolve other nutrients and carry them to all the tissues. the chemical reactions that turn food into energy or tissue building material can only take place only in a watery solution. Water carries away waste product and cools the body. Adults should consume 2 1/4 quarts (2.4 liters) of water a day in beverage or water in food.

Carbohydrates: Includes all sugars and starches, main energy source. Each gram of carbohydrate provides about 4 calories. Two kinds of carbohydrates: simple and complex. Simple carbohydrates are sugar and have simple molecular structure. Complex carbohydrates includes starches and more complicated structures linked together. Main sugar in food comes from: sucrose, lactose and fructose. Foods containing starches: beans, bread, cereal, corn, pasta, rice, peas and potatoes.

Fats: A highly concentrates sources of energy. Each gram of fat provides about 9 calories. All fats are composed of an alcohol called glycerol and fatty acids. A fatty acid consists of long chain of carbon atoms which hydrogen atoms are attached. Three types of fatty acids: saturated – as many carbon with hydrogen, monounsaturated – is lacking one pair of hydrogen atoms, and polyunsaturated – contains at least 4 fewer hydrogen atoms that it can hold. a process called hydrogenation can attach additional hydrogen atoms to carbon chain of unsaturated fatty acids. Hydrogenation – produces Trans Fat. Most saturated fat comes from food derived from animals; butter, lard, dairy products and fatty red meat.

Some come from vegetable sources, like coconut oil or palm oil. Polyunsaturated fatty acids are found oilof plants as corn and soybean and fished like salmon and mackerel. Certain polyunsaturated fatty acids are called essential fatty acids and must be included in the diet, because the body cannot manufacture them. These essential fatty acids serve as building blocks. Common sources of monounsaturated fatty acids includes olive and peanuts.
Proteins: Provides energy – 4 calories per gram, but more importantly protein serve as one of the main building material of the body. Muscle, skin, cartilage and hair are largely made of proteins. In addition, every cell contains proteins called enzymes, which speeds up reactions. Cells could not function without enzymes. Proteins also serves as hormones (chemical messengers) and as antibodies (disease fighting chemicals). Best sources of proteins: cheese, eggs, fish, lean meat and milk. Cereal, grains, legumes, nuts and vegetables also supply protein.

Minerals: are needed for growth and maintenance of body structure. They are also needed to maintain the composition of digestive juices and fluids that are found in and around cells. Only small amount of minerals are needed each day. Minerals are inorganic compounds. Plants obtain minerals from water and soil, animals get minerals by eating plants or plant eating animals. Mineral are not broken down by the body. required minerals include: calcium – blood clotting, chlorine, magnesium, phosphorous, potassium, sodium and Sulphur. Calcium, magnesium and phosphorous are needed for healthy bones and teeth. Other minerals that are needed in trace amount: chromium, copper, fluoride, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, selenium and zinc. Iron is needed to build hemoglobin – oxygen carrying molecule. Manganese and zinc require for normal action of various enzymes. Green leafy vegetables, whole grain bread, cereal, seafood and liver are good sources of trace elements.

Vitamins: Are essential for good health to regulate chemical reactions to convert food into energy an tissues. There are 13 vitamins and are divided into water soluble vitamins B, C and others and Fat soluble vitamins are A, D, E and K , dissolves in fat. Small amount of these compounds are needed daily.
Fiber: Dietary fiber consist of complex carbohydrates that cannot be absorbed by the body. Fiber passes out of the body as waste. Fiber moves food along through the stomach and intestines, help prevents constipation. Good sources of fiber include whole grain bread, cereal, beans, peas, vegetable and fruits.
Eat a balance diet: That includes all food groups: fruits, vegetables, grains, protein and dairy. Recommended moderate to vigorous physical activity for at least 30 minutes a day. Limit intake of saturated fats, Trans fat and Cholesterol. Limit intake of sodium and sugar and be aware of alcohol. Do not over eat. Store and cook food properly. Evaluate claims about food and dietary supplement carefully and read food labels.

How will this class contribute to my success upon release:

Information about nutrition will be helpful for me and the communities which I will volunteer my services upon release through teaching, tutoring and mentoring. Also the food service industry too.