Choon Yong-ACE Class Report-Infectious Disease Part 1

Author of Book: Professor Barry C. Fox
Date Read:

Book Report

ACE Class Report – Infectious Disease Part 1
Begin: 11/30/2023
Finish: 2/15/2024
Title: An Introduction to Infectious Disease.
Author: Professor Barry C. Fox
University of Wisconsin

Why I chose to Take This Class:
This class teaches me about diseases in particular infectious diseases. Knowledge about disease will help me avoid infectious diseases like Covid -19 and other diseases.

What I learned from this class:
Infectious Diseases:
Infectious diseases , or infections, occur when an organism or other agent gains entry to the body and reproduce itself. Infectious agents are also called pathogens or germs. Some pathogens damage or destroy the cells or tissue in which they reproduce. Other produce toxic chemicals that harm the body. Infectious diseases can be group according to the type or agent that causes them. Bacteria and viruses are the most common pathogens. Other include: fungi, protozoan, and worms.

Bacteria Diseases:
Bacterial are microscopic, one cell organisms, that rank among the most widespread of all living things. Most bacteria do not cause diseases. Many kinds are called resident bacteria – live harmlessly on the skin or the human mouth and intestines. These resident bacteria help protect people by crowding out or killing many disease causing bacteria. Most bacterial diseases result when bacteria multiply rapidly in living tissue. As they multiply, the bacteria release an enzyme that causes inflammation and damage or destroy living tissue. The body’s response to the invading bacteria also contributes to inflammation. This inflammation causes many familiar symptoms or disease; cough, diarrhea, discharge, and pain. Examples, redness and pus of pimples occur when a bacterium acne multiplies in the oil glands of the skin. A bacterium called Tuberculosis can multiply in the lungs and cause the cough associated with Tuberculosis. Th bacterium Chlamydia causes a sexually transmitted disease that is Chlamydia. Symptoms of Chlamydia include: sore throat, pneumonia, painful urination, discharge from sexual organs, and blindness.

Some bacteria cause disease by producing poisonous substance called toxins. Examples Tetanus is caused by the bacterium Tetani which normally lives in soil. If it enters the body through a wound, the bacterium makes a toxin that causes violent muscle contraction. A bacterium Botulinum can multiply in food and produce a deadly toxin. This toxin causes Botulism, a type of food poisoning that paralyzes muscle throughout the body.

Viral Diseases:
Viruses are even smaller that bacteria. Viruses cannot multiply except within the cells of other living things. Once virus gain entry to living cells, they take over the cells own reproductive machinery to produce more viruses. As viruses multiply, they damage or destroy cells. The dying cells release greater number of viruses, which then move on to infect other cells. If the body’s defense cannot stop this viral multiplication, diseases results. Some of the most familiar disease include: Influenza and common cold, chicken pox, measles, mumps and Rubella. Th most cases of Diarrhea and omitting result from viral infections. serious diseases caused by viruses: Hepatitis, Polio, Rabies, AIDs. HIV the virus that cause AIDs, reproduces within certain cells of the immune system and weakens the body’s ability to resist disease. As a result, people with AIDs fall ill with diseases that do not normally occur or that are not usually serious. Many people with AIDs die from these illness that take advantage of the body’s weakened immune system.

Other Infectious disease:
Can be caused by fungi, protozoan or worm that lives in the human body. These pathogens cannot make their own food. They obtain nourishment by breaking down body tissues or by absorbing digested food from the intestines. Most fungi are weak pathogens that are normally present in small numbers on the skin or in the intestines or other organs. Common fungal infection include athlete’s foot and ringworm. Some fungi infection can cause Meningitis, an infection of the membranes that line the brain. It can also cause serious lung disease called Histoplasmosis.

Protozoan are another type of one-celled organism. Protozoan called Plasmodia cause Malaria. Protozoan called Giardia cause severe, long lasting Diarrhea.
Flat worm and round worm. Disease causing flatworm can invade the blood , intestines, liver or lungs. Tapeworm can live in the intestines. Worm infection cause many serious tropical diseases, including Elephantiasis and river blindness.

Spread of Infectious disease:
An unusually contagious illness that sweep through a community or an entire continent is called an Epidemic. An Epidemic that travels rapidly from one continent to another is called a Pandemic. A major Pandemic occurred during the winner of 1918-1919 and also in 2019 – Covid 19 Pandemic. Infectious disease that are always present in a particular region are called Endemic to the region. For example. Malaria is Endemic to the jungles of Asia and Africa. The important way that infectious spread include:

  1. by people,
  2. by animal,
  3. by water,
  4. by food,
  5. by nonliving sources.
  • By people: Disease that spread by direct person-to -person contacts are called communicable. examples are AIDs, Cold, Hepatitis, influenza, pneumonia, strep throat, and Tuberculosis. Many infections spread from one person to another by hands. People often catch colds and other viral illness when their hands carry the virus to membranes in their eyes or nose. Thorough hand washing can prevent spread of disease. Infections are also spread from person to person by cough, sneezes and sexual contact.
  • By Animals: Some infectious diseases are spread by insects and other animals, especially blood sucking insects, like mosquitoes and fleas. Mosquitoes spread Malaria, Yellow Fever, Encephalitis, and other deadly ailments. Fleas carry some types of plaque. Ticks can transmit Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever and other illness. Rabies a virus that can infect bats, cats, dogs, racoons, skunks and other mammals. A bite of an infected animal can transmit Rabies to people.
  • By Water: Dirty drinking water remains a major cause of disease. Some nations lacks resources to provide citizens with sewerage system, water purifications or toilet facilities. As a result human waste enter the drinking water and spread bacteria, worms and Protozoans. Outbreak of diseases carried by water, also occur occasionally when sewerage unexpectedly enter community water supply.
  • By Food: Many food can nourish Pathogens. Bacteria such as E-Coli, Salmonella can grow and reproduce in such food as chicken, beef, or mayonnaise.
  • By Nonliving Sources: Kitchen sponges and dishcloths contain surprising large numbers of Pathogens. Recommend sterilizing or replace sponge / dish cloth regularly.

Preventing Disease:
Preventation measures rely on the combined efforts of individuals, medical professionals and government. Individuals and prevent spreading diseases by washing their hands, practicing good hygiene, avoid touching their eyes and nose or mouth with their hands after contact with others. Practice Healthy Lifestyle like exercise regularly and eat nutritious food and take vaccine as recommended by the health department.

How will this class contribute to my success upon release:
This class taught me about Infectious disease and how to prevent it. This knowledge will help me prevent catching Covid -19 and other diseases in the future. It will keep me healthy and alive while incarcerated and also when I reenter the communities. This information will be conveyed to the communities which I volunteer my teaching, mentoring and tutoring services.