Choon Yong-500 Nations – American Indian Heritage

Author of Book: Kevin Costner (Host)
Date Read: August 30, 2023

Book Report

Begin: 6/30/2023
End: 8/30/2023
Title: 500 Nations – American Indian Heritage
Hosted: Kevin Costner

Why I chose to take this class:
This class is used as a training for me to train, teach and mentor others in different topics. To learn about early cultures of the North America. The History of Mexico’s Maya and Aztec Civilization. Spaniards influenced and conquer of the Aztecs in search of gold. Christopher Columbus settled in the Caribbean and the Americas. The English settlement in America. Effect of indigenous nations on the American Revolution. War of the 1812 against the Indians. Resettlement of Indians in reservations and attack on Indian culture as settlers move west and to Gold rush areas.

What I learn from this class:
The early Anasazi in 900 AD were very civilized and they transform the arid southwest and construct the 800-room Pueblo Bonito in Pablo Canyon. This was a turquoise trading post. They moved to Mesa Verde, Cliff Palace after trade at Pueblo Bonito collapsed. A series of conflicts solidifies the power of the Toltecs for centuries in the valley of Mexico. By 1300 AD the conquering nomadic people – Aztecs arrived and their ruler was Montezuma. They built the majestic city of Tenochtitlan which becomes the center of the empire. The objective of the Spaniards Cortez was to secure all the gold and return them to Spain. They destroyed Tenochtitlan city and its inhabitants. 1942 Christopher Columbus landed in the Caribbean – Haiti. On Hispaniola, Indian overtures of friendship and commerce ran aground against the outsider who believe that wealth belongs to the strong enough to take it. The Tainos were forced to mine gold and supply food for the Spaniards. The inhabitants were massacred when they resisted or committed suicide rather than submit to the Spaniards. The Spaniards has superior weapons and easily defeated the Tainos. Inhabitants in Florida and the Mississippi Valley also confront an intractable force: the Conquistadors of Hernando De Soto in 1539. Besides the Spaniards also introduce new diseases that killed a lot of Indians who were not immune to the disease. The English settlements of Jamestown, the story of the Powhatan princess Pocahontas unfolds who save Captain John Smith at Plymouth. Wampanoag’s introduces pilgrims to a harvest celebration: Thanksgiving. Harmony ultimately turns to hostility as the English used their superior weapons to take whatever they wanted and the Wampanoag’s were annihilated. Many indigenous nations sided with the French against the land-claiming English. When the French withdrew and left the Indians vulnerable. In 1830 the Indian Removal Act becomes law. Many tribes stoically accept its decree, others resisted showdown. Tsali bargains his life for the fate of his Cherokee people and for a Smoky Mountain homeland that exists to this day. Black Kettle and White Antelope, honored by President Lincoln pursue a path of peace that met with tragedy at Sand Creek. The treacherous massacre there by Col. Covington’s Militia has repercussions all across the plains, and Sitting Bull, Crazy Horse and other leaders head fierce pockets of resistance to resettlement. The legislative attack on native ways results in disbanding of communal land. Reservations divide into 160-acre parcels offered to individual Indians; the remaining vast expanse was sold. The Oklahoma land rush of 1889 grabs up remnant land given decades before to “civilized tribes” as a perpetual home. The renewal of native cultures reminds us of the glory of America’s original people and the hardship they endured.

How will this class help me upon my release:
This class is an adult continuing education course. It helped with my pattern score. This course serves as a training program for me which I could use to train, tutor, and mentor others through my volunteer services upon my release. It is also good to acquire historical knowledge.